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Year : 2023  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 123

An immunohistochemical analysis for evaluating the diagnostic role of myofibroblasts in oral squamous cell carcinoma using α-smooth muscle actin antibody

1 Department of Human Anatomy, SGRD University of Health Sciences, Amritsar, Punjab, India
2 Department of Human Anatomy, SGRD Medical College and Hospital, Amritsar, Punjab, India
3 Department of General Pathology, Dasmesh Institute of Research and Dental Sciences, Faridkot, Punjab, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Vaishali Gandhi
Department of Human Anatomy, SGRD University of Health Sciences, Amritsar, Punjab
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/abr.abr_160_21

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Background: One of the most common types of malignancies affecting the head and neck region is oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Little less is known about the role of myofibroblasts in the pathogenetic process of OSCC. Hence, we assessed the involvement of myofibroblasts in the invasive process of OSCC using α-SMA (α-smooth muscle actin) antibody. Materials and Methods: Four study groups in total were organized as follows: 40 cases each of well-differentiated OSCC (WDOSCC), moderately differentiated OSCC (MDOSCC), poorly differentiated OSCC (PDOSCC), and controls make up Group 1, Group 2, Group 3, and Group 4, respectively. The percentage of α-SMA immunopositive cells and staining intensity (A) multiplied together to determine the final staining score (B). The final staining index was produced by multiplying staining intensity (A) by the proportion of immunopositive cells that were stained with α-SMA (B) (FSI). Score Zero was graded as Index Zero by FSI while scores One and Two received an Index Low rating, scores Three and Four an Index Moderate rating, and scores Six and Nine an Index High rating. Results: Significantly higher expression of myofibroblast was observed in OSCC group in comparison with the control group. However; no significant difference in myofibroblast expression was observed while comparing different grades of OSCC. Conclusion: We recommend using myofibroblasts as a stromal marker to track the severity and development of OSCC.

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