|Maryam Tahmasebi, Simindokht Soleimanifard, Alireza Sanei, Azadeh Karimy, Seyed Mohammad Abtahi
Adv Biomed Res 2020, 9:12 (16 March 2020)
Background: Leishmaniasis is a skin disease caused by Leishmania parasite. Despite being self-limiting, must be treated. Available drugs have side effects and drug resistance has also been seen. Materials and Methods: Maggot debridement therapy (MDT) is using sterile fly larvae (maggots) of blow flies (Lucilia sericata) for the treatment of different types of tissue wounds. Larvae have excreted and secreted substances that have been proved to have antimicrobial effects, in addition to the some other specifications. Results: In this study, the anti-leishmanial effects of extracts and secretions of sterile second- and third-instar larvae of L. sericata on the growth of Leishmania major promastigotes and amastigotes in the J774 macrophages have been evaluated in vitro. Conclusion: The results showed that extracts and secretions had almost the same leishmaniocidal effect on promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes without cytotoxic effect on macrophages.
|Mohammad Mahdi Majzoobi, Mohammad Reza Sobhan, Mehrangiz Zamani, Abbas Moradi, Sahar Khosravi, Ali Saadatmand
Adv Biomed Res 2020, 9:11 (16 March 2020)
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission pattern in Iran has been changed from injection drug to sexual contact. Lack of accurate assessment of HIV in people with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in Iran prompted us to conduct this study to determine the frequency of HIV infection in these patients.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study which conducted in 2016–2017, overall, 190 patients with STDs referring to two hospitals of Hamadan were enrolled in the study. All of the patients were examined for HIV in the first visit by rapid test and then 1 and 4 months later by the 4th generation ELISA. A questionnaire including demographic data, clinical manifestations, and high-risk behaviors was completed for all of the referring people. The collected data were analyzed using appropriate statistical tests. Results: Of 190 patients, 126 (66.3%) were female with a mean age of 34.1 ± 10.1 years and 64 (33.7%) were male with a mean age of 30.8 ± 7.8 years. One hundred twenty-eight (67.4%) got married, 73 (38.4%) and 76 (40%) had a diploma and postgraduate education, respectively, 32 (16.8%) mentioned the history of unsafe sex, and 23 (12.1%) had used condoms continuously during sexual contacts. The most common STDs were reported genital warts, 107 patients (56.3%), vaginal discharge (28, 14.7%), and genital ulcer (33, 17.4%). Two (1%) patients were positive for HIV at the first visit. Conclusion: Patients with STDs should be considered as an important source of HIV transmission, so clinicians should pay more attention to screening these patients for HIV infection.